Martin Döhler, Ralf Gründling, Jurgen Heinrich
Ganzheitliches Nutzungskonzept für die Pińczówer Erhebung - Naturschutz im Einklang mit Nutzung (Weinbau)
[Kompleksowa koncepcja użytkowania dla Garbu Pińczowskiego - ochrona środowiska zgodna z użytkowaniem (uprawa winorośli)]
The aim of the authors is to present special patterns of utilisation on a scarp elevation which consists of cretaceous marl and tertiary limestone. The climatic and edaphic conditions are described as an assumption for arable crop production (viniculture). The very steep parts of the hill are covered by xerothermic grassland including a large number of endangered species. This grassland is on the brink of extinction where bushes are replacing the habitat. To conserve the rare plant association, it is necessary to establish natural conservation with adapted maintenance. The point is to innovate a new concept of utilisation which combines both, cash cropping and protection of cultural landscape.
Alojzy Kowalkowski, Marek Jóźwiak, Rafał Kozłowski, Hubert Wróblewski
Atmospheric air pollution and transformation processes of deposition in the forest ecosystem of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains Region
[Zanieczyszczenia powietrza atmosferycznego i procesy transformacji opadów w ekosystemie leśnym Regionu Gór Świętokrzyskich]
Over 10-year experience of the åwiÍtokrzyskie Mountains region integrated environmental monitoring undoubtedly revealed that deposition systems with complexes of spatiotemporal values and consequent reactions to transformation processes of heavy-changeable and easy-changeable in time elements of ecosystems, require a†new deepen expression. Every Earthís system consists of complexes of selffunctioning elements, which interoperate in performing some defined regulating functions, to its existence necessary. Even small deviations from natural and close to optimal levels of functioning in ecosystems can have negative effects on living organisms having their niches in them. This is why it is necessary to recognise deeply and more comprehensively the emission systems in the atmosphere with their transmissions in time and space along with induced transformations in the atmosphere, hylosphere and pedosphere depending on meteorological parameters. Without a suitable processing this knowledge cannot be directly used in natural environment planning, and management and of environmental policy implementation by decision makers. Localisation of ICP IM station åwiÍty Krzyø in low mountains with dominating emissions from W and SW directions with oceanic air masses along with changeable from E and SE directions of continental air have specific geographical values for regional and local emissions examination on the background of remote continental and intercontinental emissions.
Badania lichenometryczne w badaniach geomorfologicznych
On the rock surface subject to dating the largest diameters of relatively circular and separate thalli are measured. Age of the surface is calculated based on singular largesr thallus or mean of 5 largest thalli. Obtained value is referred to calibrated growth curve of the lichens. The curve is drawn based on measurements performed on rock surfaces of known age. Recently (Brawdell, 2004; McKinzey et al., 2004) it was found out that for SE Iceland best results bring use of the size-frequency gradient technique performed on the population of Rhizocarpon lichens. The use of lichenometry in geomorphology has some limitations, e.g.: most often measured lichens Rhizocarpon donít grow on carbonate rocks, it is essential to pay attention to specific local environmental conditions (e.g. location on a slope, aspect of the rock surface) which can differentiate the pace of lichens growth, colonisation lag time which is not always known (especially in a case of moraine deposits), difficulties in finding sufficient number of lichens thalli. In SE Iceland lichenometry gives best results of rock surfaces exposed 60 to 250 years ago.
Wpływ cyrkulacji atmosferycznej na przewodność elektrolityczną roztworów wody opadowej w zlewni Bystrzanki w latach 1995-2004
This paper contains analysis of the specific electric conductivity (SEC) of precipitation water on the background air masses types, advection types and wind direction during 10-years measurements on the IG&SO PAS (IME Base Station) at Szymbark. The aim this analysis was evaluation of influence, which have different air masses, advection types and wind direction on the SEC of precipitation water in a long-term and possibility of location of potential air-pollution source. Itís ascertain the increase of the SEC during advections of anticyclonal air masses: polar-sea and polar-continental from south and south-eastern direction. Wind direct have a impact on delivering of pollution from nearby buildings.
Skład makro- i mikropierwiastków we frakcjach granulometrycznych z poziomów genetycznych gleb wykształconych z różnych utworów macierzystych Polski Wschodniej
In the years 1977-1988, in the contemporary Chair of the Soil Science of Agricultural University in Lublin, the multidirectional research on the chemical composition and proprieties of each grain size fraction separated from 6 profiles of typical soils of Eastern Poland was carried out (Fig. 1). The effect of this research was, among others, the elaboration and publication of detailed characteristics of several macro - and microelements (Fe, Ti, V, Pb, Mn, B, Al). However, due to external factors the research was not completed then. Taking into account a wide range of data obtained from this experiment, we present in this paper the research results for all determined elements. Simultaneously, this work is a kind of announcement of detailed elaborations that will be published separately for every element in the future. The scope of these elaborations will be similar to the above mentioned first one. Within the presented paper we will emphasize the most essential elements of the research results which can be summarized as follows: The soil profiles developed from different mother-rocks showed an essential influence of the mother-rock factor on the chemism of separated fractions. The analysis of the research results on the example of iron and aluminium, confirms a significant role of these elements in processes of the soil profile formation. The results confirm partially an argument of Le Riche who points out distinct differences in actions of these elements during soil formations processes. The iron, after the activation, shifts mostly in the form of hydrated oxides. On the opposite, the aluminium usually stays in a form of amorphous aluminosilicates ñ this is why the most of the mass of Al is bounded in particles of greater diameter (small dust). The research confirmed a significant role of pH of the environment in a course of these processes. In the acid reaction environment the iron mobility increased. The review of the whole obtained results shows that in the case of most marked elements, their secondary accumulation is connected with a colloidal fraction. Departures from this rule (aluminium, titanium) are not accidental but result from their geochemical dissimilarities. The attempts of estimation of negative anthropogenic changes on the example of the occurrence and reaction of the lead in the soil did not proved distinct signs of biogenic accumulation of this element in soil horizons. In comparison to the mother-rock the fall of the lead content was observed in genetic horizons of all examined profiles. The results confirm a controversial opinion about ambiguous influence of the reaction (pH) on the dissolubility and mobility of the lead in the soil environment. The composition of graphic forms of counts proposed by Le Riche confirms partly the argument of this author about the geochemical affinity of some elements to the iron but other to the aluminium. One can infer that realization of similar elaborations (graphs) for all elements will contribute to deepen our knowledge on these problems.
Międzylaboratoryjne badania porównawcze jako element sterowania jakości badań zanieczyszczenia opadów atmosferycznych na Stacji Kompleksowego Monitoringu Środowiska Puszcza Borecka
Results obtained in the interlaboratory comparisons of analytical methods for precipitation chemistry at Integrated Monitoring Station Puszcza Borecka and Environment Monitoring Laboratory during the period 1998-2005 have been presented. The author has referred to the Polish Centre for Accreditation policy for proficiency testing/interlaboratory comparisons. These comparisons are an important tool for quality assurance/quality control in precipitation chemistry research. They assure that the results meet quality criteria. On the other hand they allow to detect analytical problems and force to correct them.
Wpływ sposobu użytkowania lasu na zapasy węgla organicznego w glebie
A great part of the global reserve of carbon is accumulated in the soils of forested terrestrial ecosystems. In the face of ongoing civilisational processes leading to rapid changes in properties of elements of the natural environment, the carbon balance is of ever greater strategic significance to socioeconomic development. Alongside the natural factors influencing the shaping of carbon storage in soils, an ever greater role is being played by anthropogenic processes. The aim of the paper has been to determine the influence of trophic status, and management on the organic carbon storage in the soils of mixed pine-spruce forest with rusty soil and oak-hornbeam forest with lessive soil. The research was carried out in Bialowieza National Park, Poland. The results obtained point to the negative influence of habitat fertility on the organic carbon storage in soil. Also indicated is the influence of forest cutting in lowering natural soil fertility, which is to say increased carbon storage in the soils of ecosystems subject to management, as opposed to that in forests under protection for a decade now.
Relacja sezonów morfogenetycznych systemu stokowego i korytowego w młodoglacjalnej zlewni górnej Parsęty (Pomorze Zachodnie)
The main problem of work concerns delimitation of morphogenetical seasons in slope and river-bed system of young-glacial Upper ParsÍta catchment. The seasonal changeability of processes was marked: splash, slopewash, deflation, outflow of suspension and ion. The received methodology made possible the emission and differentiation of morphogenetical seasons of water erosion, windy erosion and fluvial transportation.
Międzynarodowe regulacje prawne w zakresie ochrony powietrza
Present elaboration presents chosen normative acts in sphere of environmental protection with indication on air protection. It perform distribution on international regulations about world coverage, European regulations and polish internal regulations. The particular push is put on United Nations Convention on Climate Change including Kioto Protocol (international coverage) and on solution concerning emission trade of greenhouse gas and other substance by EU accepted. Presentation of individual legal acts brings the readers closer to problems of natural environmental protection. Results of presented solutions and mechanism of operations, which purpose is not only reduction of emission of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere but also general care on natural environmental, will be visible within several forthcoming year. The analysis will be invaluable scientific material which could be the base for other future natural environmental protection projects.