Marek Jóźwiak, Alojzy Kowalkowski
Realizacja koncepcji Zintegrowanego Monitoringu Środowiska Przyrodniczego w regionie świętokrzyskim w 10-lecie jego inauguracji
The best indicator of the environment condition is the ecosystem itself. In the paper the organization and tasks of the Integrated Environmental Monitoring in Poland were described on the background of the European organization of International Cooperative Programme (ICP) on Integrated Monitoring. In conceptional principles there was realized a scientific concept and rational localization of the monitoring station of the Świętokrzyska Academy in the area of the Świętokrzyski National Park. The effects of ecological emissions in the examined forest ecosystem were discussed on the basis of 10-year monitoring results of the forest-agricultural river basin geoecosystem. The results of the integrated monitoring are used in the managerial practice. Additionally, they will form a basis for development of environmental indicators for establishing rational sustainable management of ecosystems. Within 10 years there was established a significant cooperation with national and international environmental monitoring centers. Furthermore, many meaningful publications were edited. Educational work and activities promoting these achievements were performed, too.
Propozycja monitoringu geosfery
Principles of the State Environmental Monitoring were defined 10 years ago. Collected data and development of sciences indicate the need of revision and modification of SEM. The presented article underlines the necessity to extend and treat in a more complex way the „nature monitoring” concept. Firstly, it refers to the need of extension of monitoring of abiotic elements of the nature. Consequently, introduction of the geosphere monitoring, as a new sub-system in the section of environmental quality assessment has been proposed. It will include 8 elements: present deformations and tensions in the upper layer of the lithosphere, changes of the geomagnetic field and the gravity field, changes of temperatures of upper layers of the lithosphere, geochemical changes in industrial and settlement areas, geochemical changes of river sediments in Poland, geochemical changes of sediments of the Polish part of the Baltic, geochemical changes around chosen waste dumps, changes of underground waters. Implementation of the geosphere monitoring will assure ecological safety of inhabitants of Poland. It should also deliver interesting data useful to formulate sustainable development objectives. This refers especially to such elaborations, as: regional ecological policy, development strategies for voivodeships, counties and communes. The geosphere monitoring will also allow to protect from serious ecological catastrophes and in the same time will help to reduce considerable potential costs of such catastrophes. Thanks to the implementation of this programme, Poland will be able to meet requirements resulting from international obligations of the geosphere change assessment, with particular regard to waters.
Metody oceny stanów jakości powietrza atmosferycznego i depozycji substancji w monitoringu ekosystemów leśnych
The atmospheric air pollution, especially a long-term influence of its deposition in ecosystems, influences consequently the substances circulation, vitality and biodiversity of organisms and the state of soils and waters. The possible exact quantification of entire deposition has a large practical meaning for the ecosystem management. Moreover, it is a priority task within the forest monitoring. In the paper there were presented presently used notions and definitions describing basic processes and paths of various substances load into forest ecosystems. Additionally, two basic methods of balancing the total deposition were described. Interdependences and relationships recognized on the basis of data obtained from a long term monitoring in German forests revealed the insufficiency in balancing of results of only measurable deposits to estimate the total atmospheric deposition. Measured sizes of partial depositions should be supplemented with models of balancing of the total deposition in the tree crown space or with resistance models that will take into account all over-ground forest elements. The spatiotemporal variability of the forest ecosystem diversity, with incomplete knowledge of factors differentiating deposition in the ecosystem, conditions the way of handling the received results as objectiveised approximations. It is known, that between forest areas, and also even between bio-groups within the forest stand, there exist significant differentiations in loads of depositions. Constantly changing environmental conditions, and connected with their dynamics depositions from the air that change sequently, urge us to continue and develop the forest monitoring. Presented elements of the contemporary knowledge on methods of balancing deposits in forests can be helpful to accelerate progresses in the described research area.
Podstawy optymalnego szacowania ładunków substancji rozpuszczonych w odpływie rzecznym
Eugeniusz Nowocień, Bogusław Podolski, Rafał Wawer
Zmiany użytkowania gruntów zlewni potoku Grodarz z wykorzystaniem ortofotomap lotniczych i GIS na podstawie wieloletniego monitoringu
The work presents research results on the changes in land use structure in two time periods: 1973-1983 and 1983-1996. Digitalization of three orthophoto maps form 1973, 1983 and 1996 revealed land use maps in vector format. Although orthophotos form 1973 and 1983 have 8-bit color depth, it was possible to distinguish only some land use types (visible patterns), divides into two groups: forests and afforestations as well as orchards and raw crops. Changes in the areas of those land use groups were calculated and spatially localized through overlay operations in GIS system. The results are shown in form of maps and table. Analyses revealed high efficiency of GIS methodology in landscape investigations, allowing to distinguish visible trends in land use structure changes over time. Aerial orthophotos seem to be a very good source for land use monitoring in absence of multispectral satellite imaginery.
Alojzy Kowalkowski, Marek Jóźwiak
Dynamika masy opadu organicznego w latach 1994-2002 w dwóch drzewostanach górskiej kwaśnej buczyny na głównym masywie Łysogór
Przestrzenne zróżnicowanie opadu podokapowego w drzewostanie jodłowo-bukowym w centralnej części Gór Świętokrzyskich
Zawartości pierwiastków metalicznych w glebie, igliwiu i korze sosny po zmniejszeniu imisji alkalicznej
Monitoring kulturowej powierzchni ziemi - kształtowanie krajobrazu przez człowieka od najdawniejszych czasów